Who were you, Ann Peakes?

In 1831 Uttoxeter parish was paying for the support of one of its paupers, William Harrison, while he was living in Belper.  William was young, aged only 20, but very poorly and he died in October that year.  During his illness he was awarded a weekly sum of money between 3s and 5s, and when he died he was buried from the Belper workhouse.  The receipt of the money and the subsequent funeral expenses were receipted with the shaky ‘X’ of one Ann Peakes, despite the fact that Harrison’s father and namesake was also living in Belper at the time.  So who was Ann?

Peakes

There are a number of options.  She was either the nurse who took the weekly money as a salary for the care of Harrison junior during his illness, or a workhouse employee, or merely an intermediary between the parishes of Uttoxeter and Belper and the Harrison family.  Genealogical research reveals no more, in that the only Ann Peakes discernible in Belper crops up on the 1851 census as the wife of an agricultural labourer.  If the author of the ‘X’ was the same person as the census entrant, then she was only 20 at the time of Harrison’s demise (ie already married and the same age as Harrison himself).  Parish nurses were typically older than 20, but it is not impossible that a young married women might make money from parish employment in this way.  A trip to the Derbyshire Record Office is in order…

Jane (or is it Jenny?) Deaville

There is a possible baptism in Doveridge of Jenny Deaville on 27 Mar 1796 the daughter of Benjamin and Jane Deaville.  (More about this later).

No marriage has been found for any Deaville to a Jane, or for Jane Deaville to anyone else after 1831.

Buried in St. Mary’s, Uttoxeter on 1 Jan 1863, Jane Deaville age 64,

The only things we definitely know about Jane Deaville is that on 12 Jan 1831 W.H. Holmes put in a bill to Uttoxeter Overseers for 2 shillings for the committal of Jane Deaville to Stafford Lunatic Asylum[i].

On the following day William Williams charged 10 shillings for conveying Jane Deaville to Stafford Lunatic Asylum. He was paid by Thomas Norris the Overseer.[ii]

Jane Deaville appears in the Stafford Asylum Weekly Returns[iii] which confirms the date of her admittance on 15th June and her discharge on 25th June 1831.  William Williams needed to make 2 journeys to Stafford over this as he charged £1.14s for 2 journeys on the 20th and 28th June 1831[iv].

A further bill was received and settled by the overseers on 11 Aug 1831 when they paid for 22 weeks care and clothing for Jane Deaville at Stafford Lunatic Asylum.[v]

The Overseers also received a letter of discharge dated 28 May 1831 from the Lunatic Asylum which gives the information that she had a sister in Uttoxeter running a Dressmaking business.[vi]

Discharge

After this letter there appears to be no trace of Jane Deaville until a burial in Uttoxeter on 1 Jan 1863 aged 64.

Consequently I looked at the unnamed sister living in Uttoxeter who was a dress maker.  William White’s Directory of 1834 lists a Miss Hannah Deaville as a Milliner and Dressmaker and this lady was located in the 1841 and subsequent Census giving her birthplace as Doveridge.  Unfortunately she was living alone in all censuses.

Using Hannah’s age and stated birth place of Doveridge her baptism was found as the daughter of Benjamin and Jane Deaville and the baptism of other children was also found, which included Jenny in 1796 but no Jane. At first sight it appears that Hannah was not Jane’s sister until we look at the marriage of the parents and find that Benjamin Deaville married Jenny Stone! Several indexes which use the Soundex system give Jane as an alternative for Jenny and vice versa.

The 1841, 1851 and 1861 census do not give any Jenny or Jane Deaville of the correct approximate age in or around Uttoxeter.

The possibility that Jane Deaville was the mother, and not the sister, of Hannah was ruled out by finding the burial of both Benjamin and Jane Deaville in Doveridge in 1824, which says of Uttoxeter

So the lady remains a mystery.  A guess might be that she was living with a man as his wife and using his name in the census but not was legally married to him.

This will be updated if future information is found.

 

 

[i] Stafford Record office ref. 3891/6/35/3/23

[ii] Stafford Record Office ref. 3891/6/35/3/9

[iii] Stafford Record Office Ref. D550/63

[iv] Stafford Record Office Ref. D3891//6/37/3/24

[v] Stafford Record Office Ref. D3891/6/37/5/11

[vi] Stafford Record Office Ref D3891/6/99 (a bundle of letters)

Edward and Martha Hall.

Edward Hall was baptised on 4 June 1773 at St. Mary’s, Uttoxeter, the son of Edward and Elizabeth Hall.

However he must have moved to Tutbury before he married as Edward Hall, of Tutbury, married Martha Harris, of this parish on 13 Oct 1803 at Marston on Dove when both signed with an X.

According toTutbury Parish Records they had the following children.

John baptised              28 Oct 1804

Elizabeth baptised      12 Apr 1807

Jane baptised             01 Aug 1813  father occ. Labourer.

William baptised         01 Jun 1817 father occ Labourer

Richard baptised        29 Sep 1822 Father occ. Labourer.

Martha was buried on 31 July 1831 at St. Mary’s, Tutbury, aged 48 (giving a DOB of 1783) after being killed by falling off a cart in Derby and the Uttoxeter Overseers received an appeal for monetary help with her burial.

Letter to Overseers

The Derby Mercury of 3 Aug 1831 reported her inquest.

“On Saturday last a coroner’s inquest was held in this borough, on view of the body of Martha Hall, of Tutbury, whose death was occasioned the preceding day in consequence of the wheel of a cart, from which she had fallen, having passed over her body – Verdict Accidental Death.”

In October 1831 the  Uttoxeter vouchers have a settled bill sent by All Saint’s, Derby Overseers, to the Uttoxeter Overseers with details of the cost of a coffin and also to pay a woman to care for the corpse of Martha Hall. Although the writer of the letter gets a bit mixed up and calls her Margaret Hall on the reverse.

WIN_20160715_11_34_01_Pro

Reverse of letter below.

WIN_20160715_11_34_20_Pro

 

The 1841 Census HO107/ 976 folio 25 shows that Edward Hall had his daughter Elizabeth and her family living with him at Monk Street, Tutbury, Staffordshire

(27 Dec 1833 St. Mary, Tutbury.  William Hopkinson married Elizabeth Hall. William signed but Elizabeth signed X)

They were still with him in 1851 at 10 Monk St. Tutbury, although Elizabeth had just been widowed. (1851 Census. HO107/2011 folio 165)

William Hopkinson was buried 1 March 1851 aged 51 at Tutbury (Just before the census which was 30th March)

Edward Hall was buried on 14th Feb 1858 at  St. Mary’s Tutbury aged 85.

Subsequently a letter has been found at Stafford Record Office in a bundle with ref. D3891/6/99. This was to the overseers and throws a little more light on the circumstances surrounding Martha’s accident.

Letter1

Letter2

Samuel Garle (1792–1867), So Much More than a Draper

Samuel Garle was born in Uttoxeter the son of William and Ann Garle.

He had seven siblings, although not all survived into adulthood: William (1786–1856), Elizabeth (1787–1789), Richard (1788–1848), Thomas (1790–1793), Ann (b.1793), John (1795–1857), and Thomas (b.1796).

Samuel Garle married Sarah Fox on (b.1802) on 16 April 1825 at Gayton, Stafford. They do not appear to have had any children. He is listed in trade directories as a linen and woollen draper and hosier in Uttoxeter’s Market Place, but bill heads for his business also note that he furnished funerals, provided stays and supplied charities at wholesale prices.

By the time of the 1851 Census, he had retired and both he and Sarah were living in Balance Street, in a freehold house, along with a servant Elizabeth Blow or Bloor. Ten years later, they were still in Balance Street with a servant, Ellen Spare.

He died aged 75 on 14 April 1867. His will was proved at Lichfield by his widow Sarah and his nephew William Garle of Millwich, a farmer. The value of Samuel’s effects was under £6,000, indicating a successful businessman. However, Garle’s interests extended beyond his drapery business and supplying the parish overseers. Samuel and William (probably the brother and not the nephew) Garle were on the provisional committee of the Leeds, Huddersfield, Sheffield, and South Staffordshire railway, also known as the Leeds, Wolverhampton and Dudley Direct Railway, and the Direct East and West Junction Railway. Samuel Garle’s and John Garle’s names could also be found amongst the list of proprietors on the deed of settlement of the North and Central Bank of England. In 1826 he was listed as one of the jurors in the Quarter Sessions alongside John Garle, innkeeper.

Sources

Anon, Deed of Settlement of the North and Central Bank of England (Manchester: printed by Henry Smith, 1835)

William James Adams, Bradshaw’s Railway Gazette, vol 1 (Manchester: Bradshaw and Blacklock, 1845)

HO107/2010 1851 Census

RG/9/1954 1861 Census

England and Wales FreeBMD Index, 1837–1915

UK Poll Books and Electoral Registers 1538–1893, Uttoxeter, 1861

National Probate Calendar 1858–1966, Samuel Garle late of Uttoxeter gentleman 14 April 1867

W. Parson and T. Bradshaw, Staffordshire General and Commercial Directory presenting an Alphabetical Arrangement of the Names and Residences of the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants and Inhabitants in General (Manchester: 1818)

Pigot and Co., National Commercial Directory [Part 2: Nottinghamshire–Yorkshire and North Wales] for 1828–29 (London and Manchester: J. Pigot and Co., 1828).

Pigot and Co., National Commercial Directory, [Derby–South Wales] (London: J. Pigot and Co. 1835).

Staffordshire Record Office, D3891/6/70, Uttoxeter Poor Rate Assessment, 1832.

SRO, Q/RJr/1826.

St Mary’s Parish Register, Uttoxeter

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

George Alsop (1776–1847), Surgeon and Apothecary, Uttoxeter

George Alsop was born in 1776. By 1799 he had qualified as a surgeon and took on John Roe as an apprentice. He took on a second apprentice, George Roe, in 1802. He married Susanna Christiana Mountford (b.1786) at St Peter and St Paul, Aston, Birmingham, on 8 May 1803. In the 1841 Census George and Christiana were recorded as living in Balance Street along with their children Mary Ann Alsop (25); Susanna Alsop (20) and Edward Alsop, also 20. They had two servants, Elizabeth Thawley (20) and John Brassing[?] aged 15.

He formed a business partnership with James Chapman and between them they provided medical services, pills and powders to the parish poor on behalf of the parish overseers (see entry ‘The Price of a Broken Leg). Alsop also became embroiled in a minor cause-celebre of the early nineteenth century. It was a case that had attracted considerable public attention and was authenticated by numerous highly respected people of ‘rank, talent, and scientific attainments’. Alongside Elias Sanders, curate of Church Broughton; John Webster, surgeon of Burton; Frederick Anson, rector of Sudbury; and George Watson Hutchinson, vicar of Tutbury, Alsop was one of the people who, watching ‘most diligently and attentively’, witnessed the supposed abstinence of Ann Moore of Tutbury, Staffordshire. Moore had constantly asserted that excepting a few blackcurrants, she had not eaten any solid food since the spring of 1807, nor had she taken any liquid since the autumn of 1808. By 1813 the case had attracted such widespread publicity that an investigation led by Legh Richmond sought to determine the truth of Moore’s claims. Richmond published his findings in A Statement of Facts, Relative to the Supposed Abstinence of Ann Moore of Tutbury, Staffordshire and a Narrative of the Circumstances which led to the recent Detection of the Imposture (Burton-upon-Trent: 1813). The title says it all.

In 1821 Alsop was listed amongst a number of other residents of Uttoxeter as a jury member at the Staffordshire Quarter Sessions. Other jury members included William Porter, Thomas Earp, William Garle and Michael Clewly.

Despite having a long-standing contract with the parish overseers, Alsop was declared bankrupt in 1831. As part of the bankruptcy proceedings land held by Alsop at Hockley was passed to his assignees and to a Mr Wilkinson, and Lanes End Croft to Mr Lassetter. A settlement was reached with creditors and a final dividend was paid in 1842[?].

At the end of December 1840 the long- standing partnership between Alsop and James Chapman was dissolved. Both men declared their intentions to carry on as Surgeons. Apothecaries and midwives independently.

His death was announced in Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal on 3 December 1847. George was 72 and declared to be ‘Universally esteemed and respected by all who knew him, and his death will be a cause of regret to an extensive circle of friends and acquaintance’.

In his short will Alsop left his plate, linen, old furniture, book debts and securities for money, and all personal effects to his ‘beloved wife’ for her sole use, and mad her the executrix. The will makes no mention of any real estate.

Sources

1841 Census HO 107/1007/15.

Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal, 3 December 1847.

Parish Register, St Peter and St Paul, Aston, Birmingham.

Legh Richmond, A Statement of Facts, relative to the supposed abstinence of Ann Moore of Tutbury, Staffordshire and a Narrative of the Circumstances which led to the recent Detection of the Imposture (Burton-upon-Trent: J. Croft, 1813).

London Gazette, part 3, (T. Neuman: 1842).

Staffordshire Adevrtiser, 27 February 1841.

Staffordshire Record Office, D3891/6/70, Uttoxeter Poor Rate assessment, 1832.

SRO, Q/RJr/ 1821.

TNA IR/38 & IR/70 Register of Duties Paid for Apprentices’ Indentures 1710–1811.

TNA, PROB 11/2086/6 Will of George Alsop, Surgeon of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, 4 January 1849.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

The Price of a Broken Leg

Medical suppliers to the Old Poor Law are one of the few groups of parish contractors who have been surveyed in any detail.  Historians like Steve King, Sam Williams and others have scrutinised the records of relief, particularly overseers’ accounts and pauper letters, for their insight into the development of the medical profession and the experiences of the sick poor.  Parishes across the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth brokered contracts with local surgeons to treat the poor, typically specifying an annual sum for which all medicines and services would be covered.  Even so, there were some treatments which were notoriously expensive or time-consuming, and contracts allowed these to be billed separately.  Setting broken bones was one of these ‘extras’ and the process proved just as costly in Uttoxeter as elsewhere.

Alsop & Chapman bill

The surgical partnership of Alsop & Chapman, based in the town, billed the overseers for setting and tending Thomas Shaw’s leg between 24 March and 17 August 1831.  The initial ‘reduction’ of the fracture was followed by medicines in the form of mixtures, pills, powders, and boluses. Redressing the leg also required lotions, lint, and ointments which were detailed over the page of the bill illustrated above.  Most grisly of all, when abscesses formed on the leg, they required ‘opening’ and presumably draining.  The whole process cost the parish £14 8s 6d.

Historians have tended to regard parish contracts as ‘bread and butter’ income for medical practitioners, that supplied a steady and reasonably reliable addition to fees from private practice.  In this instance, however, parish work could not prop up the partners in the firm (or not both of them at any rate).  George Alsop was declared bankrupt on 11 November 1831.

 

George Haslehurst (c.1792–c.1866) Nail Maker

George Haslehurst, born in Eckington, Derbyshire, c.1792, probably the son of  George Haslehurst of Eckington a nailer who, in 1791, had been fined £20 for poaching (reduced to £10 on appeal). He first came to attention through the surviving overseers’ vouchers of the parish of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire. Subsequent research had uncovered a complex life of multiple marriages, infant deaths and criminal activity.

On 10 September 1821 he married Hannah (I) Wood (c.1800–22), a spinster, at St Mary’s parish church Uttoxeter. The witnesses were James Appleby and Thomas Osborne. It was a brief marriage as Hannah died and was buried on 4 February 1822. George was not a widower for long, for he married for a second time on 22 October 1822. His wife was Hannah Cotterill (née Appleby), the recently widowed wife of Thomas Cotterill (1795–1821). Their marriage had taken place on 17 April 1820 and had as been equally brief as George and Hannah Haslehursts’. It is interesting to note that one of the witnesses of the Cotterill marriage had been Thomas Osborne.

George and Hannah (II) had a son Thomas born 8 February 1823, either meaning a very premature baby or Hannah (II) had become pregnant very soon after the death of George’s first wife, Hannah (I). Thomas was baptised at Uttoxeter’s Wesleyan chapel. He died aged four months in early June 1823. A Mary Haslehurst, possibly George’s and Mary’s second child, was buried in Uttoxeter on 23 June 1823, aged three months. In 1827 a third child, Elizabeth was born and in April 1831 a fourth, Mary, who survived for eleven months and was buried on 8 March 1831. It is likely that the birth of Mary led to Hannah’s (II) death on 4 June 1830, aged 31.

It is at some point after this that Haslehurst and the administrators of the Poor Law for Uttoxeter came into contact with each other. In April 1831 George Haslehurst was served with a removal order and was taken with his surviving child Elizabeth to Eckington by William Williams. Williams charged the parish £2 8s for his services. In May 1831 two vouchers relating to Haslehurst show that Elizabeth had died, a coffin had been supplied by Goodall and Heath and that Uttoxeter had paid for the child’s burial.

For the next fifteen years nothing further is heard of George Haslehurst until just before his third marriage. In January 1846 the Derbyshire Advertiser reported that George had been found guilty of being drunk and of assaulting Robert Yeomans of Ashbourne. He was fined for both, and in default of payment was to be committed to gaol for 24 days. His conduct did not prevent his marriage to Fanny Overton (née Baker), a widow with one son Enoch from Ashbourne. The marriage took place at St Oswald’s, Ashbourne on 28 March 1846.

It is also possible that this George Haselhurst was the same George Haslehurst, aged 53, who was up on a charge of larceny, but subsequently acquitted, at the Derby County sessions in January 1844.

By 1851 George, aged 59, and Fanny, aged 57, were living with Enoch Overton in Bunting’s Yard, High Street, Uttoxeter. However, it also seems likely that George once again found himself at odds with the law, and this time it was far more serious. In July 1854 the Derby Mercury reported the trial of George Hazlehurst, aged 62. He was charged with indecent assault upon Elizabeth Marsden a seven-year-old infant. The incident had occurred on the 1 May 1854 at Barlborough, a place close to Eckington. The newspaper thought evidence unfit for publication. The jury found him guilty of the intent and he was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment with hard labour.

George died sometime between 1854 and 1861. The 1861 Census shows that Fanny Haslehurst, now 67, a widow and infirm was still living in High Street, Uttoxeter.

Sources

St Oswald’s Parish Register, Ashbourne.

Derby Mercury, January 1844, July 1854.

Derbyshire Advertiser, January 1846.

1851 and 1861 Census

Staffordshire Record Office, SRO, D3891/6/37/1/20; D3891/6/37/2/18; D3891/6/37/2/23; D3891/6/37/2/24; D3891/6/37/2/30; D3891/6/37/3/26, Uttoxeter Overseers’ Vouchers.

St Mary’s Parish Register, Uttoxeter.

Uttoxter Wesleyan Chapel Register

wirksworth.org.uk

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

Joseph Summerland (1789–1824)

William (1765–1834) – see separate entry – and Mary (1756–1834) Summerland had a son called Joseph born 4 May 1789.

William and Mary Summerland’s son, Joseph, may have been the same Joseph Summerland (butcher) convicted alongside William Allen (dyer) of Pinfold Lane and James Ford (farrier) – Parson’s and Bradshaw’s 1818 directory lists a James Ford, veterinary surgeon, Pinfold Street – of wilfully and maliciously cutting, wounding and injuring a dog belonging to John Greenhough of Uttoxeter in September 1821. They were fined ten shillings and sixpence.

There is also a Joseph Summerland who crops up in Liverpool. Gore’s Directory of Liverpool, 1821 lists Joseph Summerland, butcher at 88 Whitechapel. Baines’ 1824 Directory of the County Palatine of Lancaster, lists a grazier and butcher of that name at 7 Atkinson Street, Liverpool. Is this the same Joseph Summerland formerly of Uttoxeter, farmer and late of Liverpool, butcher and insolvent debtor, who was discharged from Liverpool gaol around 26 October 1822, and whose name appears in the London Gazette, on 9 March 1832? If so, his creditors were requested to meet at the office of Mr Thompson solicitor, 2 High Street, Liverpool, 23 March 1832, for the purpose of choosing the assignee or assignees of his estate and effects. The London Gazette, 18 June 1850, notes that Henry Langley was the assignee of Joseph Summerland, formerly of Liverpool, butcher, insolvent, no. 7,365 C.

A Joseph Summerland of Liverpool, grazier, married Elizabeth Maudsley of the parish St Thomas, Walton, 15 April 1811. One of the witnesses was an H. Summerland. Joseph Summerland of Walton on the Hill, Liverpool died aged 35, and was buried 23 August 1824.

Is Joseph the convicted dog cutter the son of William and Mary? The dates of his birth and death fit. Is he the same person as the Liverpool insolvent debtor and the husband of Elizabeth Maudsley?

Sources

Edward Baines, History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster, 2 vols (Liverpool: Wm Wales and Co, 1824), I.

Gore, Directory of Liverpool, 1821.

Lancashire Record Office, Drl/2/416, Lancashire Anglican Parish Registers Bishop’s Transcript.

Lichfield Record Offoce, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808.

Liverpool Record Office, 283 THO/3/3, Liverpool Registers.

London Gazette.

Staffordshire Record Office, Q/SB 1821 M/3/14, Conviction of Joseph Summerland William Allen and James Ford for cutting and wounding a dog, Stafford Sept 1821.

TNA, RG 6/218, 6/650, 6/256, 6/288, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

 

TNA, IR 1/11, Register of Duties Paid for Apprentices’ Indentures, 28 April 1787.

John Summerland (b.1767)

John Summerland was the son of Joseph and Hannah Summerland. He was born in Uttoxeter in May 1767. He has entered historical consciousness through Michael Foucault’s Madness and Civilisation in which Foucault describes Summerland’s treatment at the Quaker Retreat in York for mental illness. Using William Tuke’s description of John Summerland as a being a man of Herculean size and strength, restrained by chains upon arrival and subsequently rehabilitated through Tuke’s treatment, the case is often present as a pivotal moment in the treatment of mental illness. In 2015, however, Jon Mitchell used the archives of the Retreat to present a different image of the ‘wild’ John Summerland, as a man prone to periods of instability, but also a man capable of reasoned thought, contemplation and conversation.

From the correspondence between the Summerland family and the Retreat, it is evident that his father Joseph, his brother William, and his uncle Samuel Botham, all took an active interest in John’s progress organising his admission, funding his stay and hoping that he could gain useful employment as a gardener. Moreover, in his father’s will provision was made for John’s inheritance to be placed in trust. In the correspondence of Samuel Botham it is revealed that John had recently returned to Uttoxeter from America and whilst both in Uttoxeter and in America he had attended Quaker meetings on a regular basis.

Sources 

Borthwick Institute, University of York, Retreat Archives, RET 1/5/1/7 Correspondence.

Michael Foucault, Madness and Civilisation.

Lichfield Record Office, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808; B/C 11, Letters of Administration for William Summerland, Uttoxeter, 13 January 1835.

Jon Mitchell www.blog.wellcomelibrary.org/2015/03/setting-the-record-straight-mania-or-sick-man? accessed 10/07/2016.

www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/92  accessed 11/07/2016.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

William Summerland (1765–1834), Butcher, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire

William Summerland came from a family of graziers and butchers. His parents, Joseph (1738–1808) – see separate entry –  and Hannah of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, had at least six children of whom William was the eldest. Nominally, the Summerlands were Quakers, but several birth and death certificates note they were ‘not in unity’ or ‘not members’.

At some point William joined his father in the butchery trade, but in January 1798 the Derby Mercury carried the following announcement: ‘Joseph Summerland and his son William both of Uttoxeter, mutually agree to continue all business separately and without interference with each other.’ The same announcement was made in the Staffordshire Advertiser. The wording does not follow the more usual statements regarding the dissolution of a business partnership where either or both partners were to continue. The phrase ‘without interference’ perhaps suggests a less amicable split. Whatever the cause of the break-up, however, it was not sufficient for Joseph to disinherit his son or to prevent his son from being an executor of his father’s will.

After various bequests and legacies, Joseph left his property in High Wood, late the estate of Thomas Pitts, to William, and all remaining real and personal estate.

William married Mary. They had at least six children: Hannah (1788), Joseph (1789), Ann Marie (1790), William (1791), Mary (1792), Richard Ecroyd (1793–1824). William and Richard followed their father into the butchery business.

William Summerland of Carter Street is listed in the 1818 A New General and Commercial Directory of Staffordshire as a butcher, grazier and mule dealer, and also in White’s 1834 History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire. William was a frequent supplier of meat to the workhouse. Between 26 March and 28 May 1831, he supplied beef on four occasions to the value of £4 17s 7d.

Like his father, William took an active interest in the welfare of his brother John (b.1767) – see separate entry –  who in 1802 spent four months as a patient of William Tuke in the Quaker Retreat in York for mental illness.

William died intestate in November 1834 aged 70, having outlived his wife Mary who died aged 78 in January 1834.  The Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser declared ‘His death was awfully sudden. His servant man called him early … in order to prepare to attend a fair; and a short time afterwards the same servant found him in the room a corpse!’ Letters of Administration were granted to William’s ‘natural and lawful daughter’ Hannah, the wife of John French of the Heath, Uttoxeter. French (yeoman), Joseph Newton (butcher) and Hannah Gammage (widow) entered into a bond to the value of £2,000 to ensure that William’s estate (sworn value £1,000) was administered in accordance with the law.

The appointment of Joseph Newton as an executor is not surprising. A Joseph Newton signed a receipt on behalf of William Summerland in 1832. It was common for people in the same or similar lines of business as the deceased to assist a widow when it came to administering, managing or settling an estate as they knew how local businesses and their networks operated. The people agreeing to be guarantors, trustees and executors knew that they had legal responsibilities to fulfil. There was evidently some dispute over William’s estate. In 1842 the London Gazette reported that pursuant to a decree in Chancery, made in a cause Clough versus French, the creditors of William Summerland, late of Uttoxeter … Butcher, Grazier and Farmer deceased, were to leave their claims before Nassau William Senior, esq. If they failed to do so, they would be excluded the benefits of the decree. Quite what the dispute centred on is not yet known.

Sources

Borthwick Institute, University of York, Retreat Archives, RET 1/5/1/7 Correspondence.

Peter Collinge, ‘Gentility, status and influence in late-Georgian Ashbourne c.1780–1820: Barbara Ford and her circle’ (unpublished MRes Dissertation, Keele University, 2011).

Derby Mercury, 25 January 1798.

Lichfield Record Office, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808; B/C 11, Letters of Administration for William Summerland, Uttoxeter, 13 January 1835.

London Gazette, 1842.

Jon Mitchell www.blog.wellcomelibrary.org/2015/03/setting-the-record-straight-mania-or-sick-man? accessed 10/07/2016.

www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/92  accessed 11/07/2016.

W. Parson and T. Bradshaw, Staffordshire General and Commercial Directory presenting an Alphabetical Arrangement of the Names and Residences of the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants and Inhabitants in General (Manchester: 1818).

Staffordshire Advertiser, 13 January 1798.

Staffordshire Record Office, D3891/6/37/1/2; D3891/6/37/1/5; D3891/6/37/1/7; D3891/6/37/2/9.

TNA, RG 6/218, 6/650, 6/256, 6/288, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

TNA, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (1834).

Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser, 12 November 1834.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.