Joseph Summerland (1789–1824)

William (1765–1834) – see separate entry – and Mary (1756–1834) Summerland had a son called Joseph born 4 May 1789.

William and Mary Summerland’s son, Joseph, may have been the same Joseph Summerland (butcher) convicted alongside William Allen (dyer) of Pinfold Lane and James Ford (farrier) – Parson’s and Bradshaw’s 1818 directory lists a James Ford, veterinary surgeon, Pinfold Street – of wilfully and maliciously cutting, wounding and injuring a dog belonging to John Greenhough of Uttoxeter in September 1821. They were fined ten shillings and sixpence.

There is also a Joseph Summerland who crops up in Liverpool. Gore’s Directory of Liverpool, 1821 lists Joseph Summerland, butcher at 88 Whitechapel. Baines’ 1824 Directory of the County Palatine of Lancaster, lists a grazier and butcher of that name at 7 Atkinson Street, Liverpool. Is this the same Joseph Summerland formerly of Uttoxeter, farmer and late of Liverpool, butcher and insolvent debtor, who was discharged from Liverpool gaol around 26 October 1822, and whose name appears in the London Gazette, on 9 March 1832? If so, his creditors were requested to meet at the office of Mr Thompson solicitor, 2 High Street, Liverpool, 23 March 1832, for the purpose of choosing the assignee or assignees of his estate and effects. The London Gazette, 18 June 1850, notes that Henry Langley was the assignee of Joseph Summerland, formerly of Liverpool, butcher, insolvent, no. 7,365 C.

A Joseph Summerland of Liverpool, grazier, married Elizabeth Maudsley of the parish St Thomas, Walton, 15 April 1811. One of the witnesses was an H. Summerland. Joseph Summerland of Walton on the Hill, Liverpool died aged 35, and was buried 23 August 1824.

Is Joseph the convicted dog cutter the son of William and Mary? The dates of his birth and death fit. Is he the same person as the Liverpool insolvent debtor and the husband of Elizabeth Maudsley?

Sources

Edward Baines, History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster, 2 vols (Liverpool: Wm Wales and Co, 1824), I.

Gore, Directory of Liverpool, 1821.

Lancashire Record Office, Drl/2/416, Lancashire Anglican Parish Registers Bishop’s Transcript.

Lichfield Record Offoce, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808.

Liverpool Record Office, 283 THO/3/3, Liverpool Registers.

London Gazette.

Staffordshire Record Office, Q/SB 1821 M/3/14, Conviction of Joseph Summerland William Allen and James Ford for cutting and wounding a dog, Stafford Sept 1821.

TNA, RG 6/218, 6/650, 6/256, 6/288, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

 

TNA, IR 1/11, Register of Duties Paid for Apprentices’ Indentures, 28 April 1787.

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John Summerland (b.1767)

John Summerland was the son of Joseph and Hannah Summerland. He was born in Uttoxeter in May 1767. He has entered historical consciousness through Michael Foucault’s Madness and Civilisation in which Foucault describes Summerland’s treatment at the Quaker Retreat in York for mental illness. Using William Tuke’s description of John Summerland as a being a man of Herculean size and strength, restrained by chains upon arrival and subsequently rehabilitated through Tuke’s treatment, the case is often present as a pivotal moment in the treatment of mental illness. In 2015, however, Jon Mitchell used the archives of the Retreat to present a different image of the ‘wild’ John Summerland, as a man prone to periods of instability, but also a man capable of reasoned thought, contemplation and conversation.

From the correspondence between the Summerland family and the Retreat, it is evident that his father Joseph, his brother William, and his uncle Samuel Botham, all took an active interest in John’s progress organising his admission, funding his stay and hoping that he could gain useful employment as a gardener. Moreover, in his father’s will provision was made for John’s inheritance to be placed in trust. In the correspondence of Samuel Botham it is revealed that John had recently returned to Uttoxeter from America and whilst both in Uttoxeter and in America he had attended Quaker meetings on a regular basis.

Sources 

Borthwick Institute, University of York, Retreat Archives, RET 1/5/1/7 Correspondence.

Michael Foucault, Madness and Civilisation.

Lichfield Record Office, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808; B/C 11, Letters of Administration for William Summerland, Uttoxeter, 13 January 1835.

Jon Mitchell www.blog.wellcomelibrary.org/2015/03/setting-the-record-straight-mania-or-sick-man? accessed 10/07/2016.

www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/92  accessed 11/07/2016.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

William Summerland (1765–1834), Butcher, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire

William Summerland came from a family of graziers and butchers. His parents, Joseph (1738–1808) – see separate entry –  and Hannah of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, had at least six children of whom William was the eldest. Nominally, the Summerlands were Quakers, but several birth and death certificates note they were ‘not in unity’ or ‘not members’.

At some point William joined his father in the butchery trade, but in January 1798 the Derby Mercury carried the following announcement: ‘Joseph Summerland and his son William both of Uttoxeter, mutually agree to continue all business separately and without interference with each other.’ The same announcement was made in the Staffordshire Advertiser. The wording does not follow the more usual statements regarding the dissolution of a business partnership where either or both partners were to continue. The phrase ‘without interference’ perhaps suggests a less amicable split. Whatever the cause of the break-up, however, it was not sufficient for Joseph to disinherit his son or to prevent his son from being an executor of his father’s will.

After various bequests and legacies, Joseph left his property in High Wood, late the estate of Thomas Pitts, to William, and all remaining real and personal estate.

William married Mary. They had at least six children: Hannah (1788), Joseph (1789), Ann Marie (1790), William (1791), Mary (1792), Richard Ecroyd (1793–1824). William and Richard followed their father into the butchery business.

William Summerland of Carter Street is listed in the 1818 A New General and Commercial Directory of Staffordshire as a butcher, grazier and mule dealer, and also in White’s 1834 History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire. William was a frequent supplier of meat to the workhouse. Between 26 March and 28 May 1831, he supplied beef on four occasions to the value of £4 17s 7d.

Like his father, William took an active interest in the welfare of his brother John (b.1767) – see separate entry –  who in 1802 spent four months as a patient of William Tuke in the Quaker Retreat in York for mental illness.

William died intestate in November 1834 aged 70, having outlived his wife Mary who died aged 78 in January 1834.  The Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser declared ‘His death was awfully sudden. His servant man called him early … in order to prepare to attend a fair; and a short time afterwards the same servant found him in the room a corpse!’ Letters of Administration were granted to William’s ‘natural and lawful daughter’ Hannah, the wife of John French of the Heath, Uttoxeter. French (yeoman), Joseph Newton (butcher) and Hannah Gammage (widow) entered into a bond to the value of £2,000 to ensure that William’s estate (sworn value £1,000) was administered in accordance with the law.

The appointment of Joseph Newton as an executor is not surprising. A Joseph Newton signed a receipt on behalf of William Summerland in 1832. It was common for people in the same or similar lines of business as the deceased to assist a widow when it came to administering, managing or settling an estate as they knew how local businesses and their networks operated. The people agreeing to be guarantors, trustees and executors knew that they had legal responsibilities to fulfil. There was evidently some dispute over William’s estate. In 1842 the London Gazette reported that pursuant to a decree in Chancery, made in a cause Clough versus French, the creditors of William Summerland, late of Uttoxeter … Butcher, Grazier and Farmer deceased, were to leave their claims before Nassau William Senior, esq. If they failed to do so, they would be excluded the benefits of the decree. Quite what the dispute centred on is not yet known.

Sources

Borthwick Institute, University of York, Retreat Archives, RET 1/5/1/7 Correspondence.

Peter Collinge, ‘Gentility, status and influence in late-Georgian Ashbourne c.1780–1820: Barbara Ford and her circle’ (unpublished MRes Dissertation, Keele University, 2011).

Derby Mercury, 25 January 1798.

Lichfield Record Office, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808; B/C 11, Letters of Administration for William Summerland, Uttoxeter, 13 January 1835.

London Gazette, 1842.

Jon Mitchell www.blog.wellcomelibrary.org/2015/03/setting-the-record-straight-mania-or-sick-man? accessed 10/07/2016.

www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/92  accessed 11/07/2016.

W. Parson and T. Bradshaw, Staffordshire General and Commercial Directory presenting an Alphabetical Arrangement of the Names and Residences of the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants and Inhabitants in General (Manchester: 1818).

Staffordshire Advertiser, 13 January 1798.

Staffordshire Record Office, D3891/6/37/1/2; D3891/6/37/1/5; D3891/6/37/1/7; D3891/6/37/2/9.

TNA, RG 6/218, 6/650, 6/256, 6/288, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

TNA, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.

William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (1834).

Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser, 12 November 1834.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

Joseph Summerland (1738–1808), Uttoxeter, Staffordshire

Joseph Summerland (1738–1808) married Hannah, and was the father of William (1765–1834), John (b.1767), Samuel (1773–1788), Joseph (b.1770), Thomas, (1776–1803), and Susanna (b.1779).  Joseph Summerland senior was a some-time supplier to the Uttoxeter poor.  In 1769 he sold beef to the parish in lots of 30-50 pounds at 2d or 2.5d per pound, presumably for consumption in an early workhouse.

In 1787 Joseph Summerland paid the apprentice duty on James Collier indenturing him to his butchery trade. The Universal British Directory (1790–98) lists a John a Joseph Summerland, butcher. William (see separate entry) joined his father in the butchery trade but by 1798 they announced the dissolution of their partnership in the Derby Mercury and in the Staffordshire Advertiser.

After spending some time in the West Indies and in America, Joseph’s and Hannah’s son John, returned to Uttoxeter, but was evidently unwell (see separate entry). He was admitted to the Quaker Retreat in York (established in 1792 by William Tuke to treat mental illness) in 1802, for which Joseph paid one guinea per week.

By the time of Joseph’s death aged 70 in November 1808 he had accumulated substantial real and personal estate. His probated will of 29 April 1809 made detailed provision for his surviving children William, John and Susannah, their spouses, and his servants. The executors were his son William Summerland, Thomas Lee Higgott (gent), and Samuel Botham (land surveyor). Joseph left personal estate to the sworn value of £5,000. His two dwelling houses in Tinkers Lane in the occupations of John Goodrich and Richard Johnson together with land known as Broad Meadow and Netherwood in Uttoxeter and in Leigh were to be sold publicly or privately with the executors using the proceeds to settle debts and discharge legacies.  Additional property including a house and land at High Wood, Uttoxeter, in the holding of his servant William Felthouse was to be held by Joseph’s son John for his lifetime and afterwards by his wife for her lifetime. After their deaths the property was to be settled on John’s lawful children if he should have any. If John had no children then the property was to go to the children of his son William and to the children of his daughter Susannah Newton, the wife of John Newton.

The sum of £1,200 was to be placed by his executors in government securities with the interest to be paid to his son John and on his death to John’s widow Elizabeth was to receive £400 of the £1,200. The whole was then to be divided equally amongst their children once they reached the age of twenty-one. The executors were to invest £1,000 with the interest being paid to his daughter Susannah for her separate and exclusive use. After her death it was bequeathed to her husband John Newton and then equally to their children when they reached twenty-one. If Susannah died childless then the £1,000 legacy was to be divided amongst the children of John and William. John was to receive £200, but a codicil revoked this and the money was to be added to the £1,200 being administered by the executors for John’s benefit. Leaving money in trust to John, rather than him inheriting outright, may have been as a result of his mental instability. Susannah was to receive £500. Joseph’s servant was bequeathed £10, and his servant Mary Kendrick was to receive £20 if she was still in Joseph’s employment at the time of his decease. His messuage in High Wood, late the estate of Thomas Pitts, was bequeathed to his eldest son William, as was all remaining real and personal estate.

Sources

William Salt Library 3/4/00 copy voucher of 1769; Borthwick Institute, University of York, Retreat Archives, RET 1/5/1/7 Correspondence.Derby Mercury, 25 January 1798.Lichfield Record Office, B/C 11, Will of Joseph Summerland, 29 April 1808.Jon Mitchell www.blog.wellcomelibrary.org/2015/03/setting-the-record-straight-mania-or-sick-man? accessed 10/07/2016.www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/92  accessed 11/07/2016.Staffordshire Advertiser, 13 January 1798.TNA, England and Wales Quaker Birth, Marriage and Death Index, 1578–1837.TNA, IR 1/11, Register of Duties Paid for Apprentices’ Indentures, 28 April 1787.

N.B. This biography is a work in progress and will probably be amended as further information from vouchers and other sources becomes available.

A Butcher’s Hook?

The tradespeople of Uttoxeter worked collectively to supply the town’s workhouse with provisions, and this week I’ve been looking at butchers.  Beef was apparently consumed by the workhouse paupers several times per week, and several butchers benefited from the parish’s custom across the 1820s and early 1830s.  At least five businesses crop up in the vouchers, ranging from the probably small-scale enterprise of Edward Cope, who had a house on the High Street, through to Joseph Shipley who made his home on Market Street but also held other property across the town.

summerland-landscape-small

One of the more prosperous butchers in the town was William Summerland, who had a house on Carter Street.  He also payed rates on other land, including a piece with the quirky name ‘Fromety Dick’!